What are those Tarpaulin and Shade Fabrics Testing Standards and What Equipment will be used?

What are those Tarpaulin and Shade Fabrics Testing Standards and What Equipment will be used?

What are those Tarpaulin and Shade Fabrics Testing Standards and What Equipment will be used?
What is Fabric Test?
Fabric is the main element of garments. There are many quality parameters of fabrics that must be tested to ensure fabrics quality meet the customer requirement. Fabrics become a cloth when we cut and sew it as per human body shape. Fabric's quality affects directly the human body.
Objectives of Fabric Testing:
1. To check that the fabric conforms to the fabric specification.
2. To check the effect of physical and chemical treatment.
3. To improve the quality of the products.
4. To meet customers’ needs.
5. research and developed purpose

Fabrics Testing Instruments

Test name
Yarn Count
Electric balance, Counter pin, magnifying glass.
Fabric GSM testing
GSM cutter, specimen fabric.
Fabric fire testing
Gaslighter and fabric.
Distortion or Skew Movement
Washing machine, Measurement scale.
Dimensional stability to washing
Measurement Scale, Washing machine, Tumble dryer.
Fabric Allergy Testing
PH  meter
Colorfastness to Crocking
Crock meter.
Color Fastness to Washing
Detergent, Water, Jar, and test specimen
Fabric Damage testing
Tear strength tester.
Colorfastness to light
Xenon Arc light machine
Seam Slippage test
Strength tester machine, Sewing thread, and needle.
Fabric Abrasion Testing
Abrasion tester, Scissor, Electric Balance.
Crease recovery  Test
Crease recovery tester
Snapping & Unsnapping Test
Button snap pull tester machine
Fabric Absorbency Test
Fabric, Water.
Width of the Fabric – Cut table
Cutter machine, Table.
Shrinkage Test
Washing machine, Shrinkage test Scale.
Difference types of Fabric Quality Testing, Testing Method and Pass tolerance
Yarn Count:
Fabric is produced by yarn, so first of all yarn is tested. Yarn Count is a numerical expression of coarseness or fineness of the yarn. This test is done by following the ASTM D1059/1907 method. Its acceptance limit is ±3%.
Standard Method: ASTM D1059/1907
Pass tolerance: Its acceptance limit is ±3%.

Construction Per Inch ( Thread / Unit Length ):
PPI & EPI is the most common term in fabric. PPI means pick per inch and EPI means Ends per inch. The pass tolerance is + 5% to -3 %*. The test is followed ASTM D3775 method.
Standard Method: ASTM D3775
Pass tolerance: The pass tolerance is + 5% to -3 %*

Fabric GSM testing:
GSM means grams per square meter. It is an important property of the fabric. The more gsm the garments more weight, The less gsm the garments lighter weight.
Standard Method: ASTM D3776

Fabric fire testing
Fabric is manufactured by various types of yarn. A fabric contains cotton, nylon, polyester, wool, etc. After manufacturing fabric, it needs to be dyed. Some are appropriate for that dye or not due to the thermal resistance. For that reason, this test is done to identify the yarn and as well as to select the temperature. This test follows the ISO-14116 method.
Standard Method: ISO-14116

Distortion or Skew Movement:
This test method is used as an indication of the propensity of yarns to shift or distort in a fabric. Such distortions are objectionable due to the resulting changes in appearance. This test follows AATCC 179 method. Pass tolerance for left Max ±3 % and for right Max ±3 %.
Standard Method: AATCC 179
Pass tolerance: Pass tolerance for left Max ±3 % and for right Max ±3 %.

Dimensional stability to washing after 3 Home laundry dimensions stability is the main function to test. After making garments if the dimension does not remain the same as before wash, all works will go in vain. To keep an accurate dimension, the test is used. The dimension stability test follows the AATCC 135 method. Pass tolerance along lengthwise max 0 to -3% and width wise max 0 to -5% .
Standard Method: AATCC 135
Pass Tolerance: length wise max 0 to -3% and width wise max 0 to -5% .

Fabric Allergy Testing
During Dyeing, many chemicals are used. So the PH value may differ from the standard. When garments are worn on the body, it also Directly reacts with skin. If the fabric becomes Acidic or Alkali it will be hazardous for human beings. So it needs to check whether the fabric is neutral or not. This test follows AATCC 81 method and passes tolerance for Acid Range is max 5.5 and for Alkali 6.5
Standard Method: AATCC 81
Pass Tolerance: pass tolerance for Acid Range is max 5.5 and for Alkali 6.5

Colorfastness to Crocking
Colorfastness means the tendency to bleed the color from fabric. The crocking machine is used to test colorfastness. By crocking colorfastness can be tested in dry and wet conditions. It follows AATCC 8 method and its pass tolerance for dry minimum 3-4 grade and for wet minimum 1.5-3.5 grade according to scale.
Standard Method: AATCC 8
Pass Tolerance: For dry minimum 3-4 grade and for wet minimum 1.5-3.5 grade.

Color Fastness to Washing
Colorfastness to washing means how many colors bleed due to washing. For this test multitier stripes are used and the specimen is attached with this stripe. Then evaluate the specimen before and after wash. It follows AATCC 61 method and passes tolerance on wool is max 3.5
Standard Method: AATCC 61
Pass Tolerance: pass tolerance on wool is max 3.5

Fabric Damage Testing:
Strengthens is another property of the fabric. So Strength is tested by a tear strength tester machine. This test follows the ASTM D1424 method and its pass tolerance is a maximum of 1.5-2.5lbs both lengthwise and widthwise.
Standard Method: ASTM D1424
Pass Tolerance: maximum 1.5-2.5lbs both lengthwise and widthwise.

Colorfastness to light
Colorfastness to light means how much color damage or bleed due to light. For this test, xenon arc lamp is used which produces high heat. It follows AATCC 16 method. Its pass tolerance is 2.5.
Standard Method: AATCC 16
Pass Tolerance: Its pass tolerance is 2.5

Seam Slippage test
Seam slippage is the problem of special fabrics that contains slippery yarn. This test method is used to determine the resistance to slippage of filling yarns over warp yarns, or warp yarns over filling yarns, by using a standard seam. The tolerance load resistance to yarn slippage should be 15 lbs-25lbs and it follows ASTM D434-95 method.
Standard Method: ASTM D434-95
Pass Tolerance: 15 lbs-25lbs

Fabric Abrasion Testing
Due to rubbing with a body the entangled small fibers on the surface of fabric create pilling which makes the outsight of garments very odd. In order to remove such kind of problem pilling resistance test is done. It follows the method of ISO 12945 for which needs 3+1/2 hours and 12000 revolutions. The acceptance pill rate is 2-4.
Standard Method: ISO 12945
Pass Tolerance: The acceptance pill rate is 2-4.

Crease recovery Angles
To determine the recovery properties of fabrics by creasing in a loading device for a predetermined time using a weight. For this test Crease recovery tester is used. The acceptable Crease recovery angle is 75 Deg and it follows AATCC 66 method.
Standard Method: AATCC 66
Pass Tolerance: The acceptable Crease recovery angle is 75 Deg

Snapping & Unsnapping - Holding strength test- ( 4 PARTS BUTTON)
The test method helps to determine the force required to disengage the fasteners that are attached to the garments and clothes. It follows ASTM D4846 method and Its acceptance load is min 1.5kg and max 2.5 kg. A Snap button puller tester is used for this test.
Standard Method: ASTM D4846
Pass Tolerance: Its acceptance load is min 1.5kg and max 2.5 kg

Anti-Bacterial Activity & Efficacy
To keep the safe fabric from Bacterial activity & efficacy another test is done. For this kind of test, JISL-1902 method is followed.
Standard Method: JISL-1902
Pass Tolerance: No allowance for bacterial activity.

Fabric Test absorbency
Absorbency defines as the ability to absorb water in the fabric. This property is a very important factor for making garments according to use. This test follows ASTM D123–01.
Standard Method: ASTM D123–01
Pass Tolerance: Seconds - Before HL 7 and Seconds - After 10 HL 7.

Width of the Fabric – Cuttable:
No Tolerance for minus width. No upper limit
Standard Method: ASTM D3774-18
Pass Tolerance: No Tolerance for minus width.

Shrinkage Test
Shrinkage is a common term in the garments industry. Shrinkage indicates that how much shortage or how much extend after laundry in measurement. It is denoted as shrinkage%. The more shrink the fabric consumption is more. as well as costing is more. Its tolerance is ±3 %. This test is done by the ISO 6330 method.
Standard Method: ISO 6330 method.
Pass Tolerance: tolerance is ±3% (It varies fabric wise )