Quality & Test Standard
all
General FAQ
Fabric Knowledge
Quality & Test Standard

Quality & Test Standard

What are the Common Flammability and Flame Retardants Standards applied on Tarpaulin?

How many different kind of common Flame Retardants Testing Standard are used worldwide? No Testing Standard Descriptions 1 NFP92-507   2 EN13501-1   3 DIN4102-1 Fire behaviour of building materials and elements, Part 1: Classification of building materials requirements and testing. 4 CSFM T19   5 ASTM E84   6 BS7837   7 BS5867   8 AS/NZS 1530.3   9 AS/NZS 3837   10 ISO 6941:2003   ASTIM E84 – Upholstered Walls  Purpose: Rates flame spread and smoke development of interior finish building materials. Method: As application dictates (wrapped panels, glued fabric, etc.) samples are laid in 25’ tunnel and lit aflame at one end. Test: Measures how far and fast flames travel and the amount of smoke that develops. Association for Contract Textiles (ACT) Recommendation: Flame spread of 25 and smoke dev. of 450 or less for Class 1/A Notes: This is usually considered to include any items that are a part of the structure.For products that pass these criteria: Class A, Flame Spread 1-25, Smoke Developed Less than or equal to 450 Class B, Flame Spread 26-75, Smoke Developed Less than or equal to 450 Class C, Flame Spread 76-200, Smoke Developed Less than or equal to 450. Please note, this test is comparable to UL 723, ANSI/NFPA No 255, and UBC No. 8-1 NFPA 701 The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has a book of guidelines for testing the flammability of objects. In many states, it is required for many fabrics used in public spaces to be flame retardant. A test known as NFPA 701 is conducted to demonstrate how textiles such as those found in canopies react when put on fire. What is observed is how much the fabric resists the flame after 12 seconds. What is measured following that is the size of the flame, the char length, and if the fabric continues to burn. If a fabric has a char length of smaller than 6.5 inches, an after-flame of less than two seconds, and it does not continue to burn after falling to the ground of the testing chamber, the fabric passes and is certified as flame retardant.Test Method 1 1) Fragments or residues of specimens that fall to the floor of the test chamber shall not continue to burn for more than an average of 2 seconds per specimen for the sample of 10 specimens. 2) The average weight loss of the 10 specimens in a sample shall be 40 percent or less. Test Method 2 1.Performance Criteria. 1) When any specimen continues flaming for more than 2 seconds after the test flame is removed from contact with the specimen, the material shall be recorded as having failed the test. 2) When the length of char of any individual folded specimen exceeds 1050 mm (41.3 in.), the material shall be recorded as having failed the test. 3) When the char length of any single flat specimen exceeds 435 mm (17.1 in.), the material shall be recorded as having failed the test. 4)When at any time during or after the application of the test flame, any portions or residues of the material being tested break or drip from the specimen fall to the floor of the test apparatus, and continue burning for more than 2 seconds after reaching the floor of the test apparatus, the material shall be recorded as having failed the test. CPAI-84 This is a test to evaluate the flame resistance of fabrics found specifically in tents. CPAI-84 also gives certification and performance criteria to test suppliers. What is analyzed is how the fabric is resistant to fire depending on char length and how much mass was lost from burning. This test, however, does not determine whether or not a fabric is flame retardant. CPAI-84 was conceptualized in 1976 to reduce the likelihood of fires in paraffin-coated tents, such as those associated with circuses and fairs. This standard, however, is considered outdated and has not been revisited in over two decades. Since that time, very much has changed in the way textiles and fabrics for tents and canopies have been created. Both CPAI-84 and NFPA 701 are standards that assess flame-resistant properties of fabrics. While CPAI-84 is a standard made exclusively for materials in tents, NFPA 701 is a more general method of testing fabrics.

What is Fabric GSM and How to Measure It?

When we buy fabric, one term we often hear is GSM. It’s a very important attribute of a fabric because along with many other factors the price and comfort depend heavily on it. Also, different type of knitting stitches and woven structures give rise to different GSM values. In this article, we’ll provide you an in-depth look into what is fabric gsm and how do we measure fabric gsm. Without further ado, let’s jump right in. What is Fabric GSM GSM stands for “Gram per Square Meter.” Therefore, we can say it’s a measure of fabric density, i.e., the weight of the fabric per square meter. By evaluating the fabric GSM value, we can assess whether the fabric is heavy or lightweight. The higher the GSM, the heavier it weighs and vice versa. It’s an essential parameter in the textile sector for obvious reasons. We can’t characterize a fabric without mentioning it. We can measure GSM for all types of fabrics. It’s an essential parameter of the garments ordering process. Thus, maintaining it in all stages of the production is of utmost importance. For this, every textile engineer, specially merchandiser of woven and knit garments, should know the GSM calculation to execute the order properly. Now, we must remember that while fabric GSM gives us the idea of its weight it’s not a clear indicator of its thickness. The fabric thickness mainly depends on its structure/ construction. What Is Crimp Factor or Crimp Percentage? During the calculation of fabric GSM, the crimp factor may be needed sometimes, and for that reason, we have to know the crimp percentage. Warp and weft yarns are used to form fabrics. These two sets of threads, i.e., warp and weft yarns, create the structure of cloth by interlacing with each other. Due to the interlacing of these two sets of yarn, a wavy structure formed. This waviness is called Crimp. And Crimp always expressed in percentage. Here, the yarn loses its length while forming a wavy formation. The normal length of the yarn is longer than the interlaced one. That means the threads that are used to create interlacing lose its length due to wavy formation. Suppose a yarn whose length is 5.5 meter in normal or in straight condition, but when it interlaces with another one and form a fabric, then it loses its length, and the length is 5 meter(0.5 meter loss). Crimp Percentage Measurement For measuring the GSM, we need to measure the crimp percentage first. The measurement of warp crimp and weft crimp percentages formula are mentioned below:Crimp Percentage of Warp YarnYou need to use the following equation to get the crimp% of the warp –Crimp% of Warp Yarn = {(Length of the Warp in Straight Condition – Length of the Warp in Fabric Formation) ÷ Length of the Warp in Fabric Formation} × 100Crimp Percentage of Weft YarnYou need to use the following equation to get the crimp% of the weft –Crimp% of Weft Yarn = {(Length of the Weft in Straight Condition – Length of the Weft in Fabric Formation) ÷ Length of the Weft in Fabric Formation} × 100 GSM Calculation Method for Woven Fabric We can use this formula to determine the GSM of given woven fabric:Woven Fabric GSM = [{(Ends Per Inch × Warp Crimp Factore) ÷ Warp Count} + {(Picks Per Inch × Weft Crimp Factore) ÷ Weft Count}] × 23.5Now by putting down all the value from a sample, we can easily determine GSM value for a woven fabric. GSM Calculation Method for Knit Fabric We can use either of these formula to determine the GSM for knit fabric:Fabric GSM with Direct Count(Tex) = Course Per Inch × Wales Per Inch × Stitch Length in mm × Yarn Count in Tex × 0.001549Fabric GSM with Indirect Count(Tex) = (Course Per Inch × Wales Per Inch × Stitch Length in mm × 0.9155) ÷ Yarn Count in Ne GSM Cutter Machine How Does GSM Cutter Machine Work Basically, the GSM cutter machine works through its Four highly sharp blades. The blades are fitted inside the machine and sorted out in a pattern as every blade can participate in cutting in sequential order and cut the fabric very smoothly. A plate covers the outer part in which blades lie inside. As the blades are highly sharp, so we have to be careful while cutting fabric. There are machines of various diameters, but for use in textiles, the ideal diameter is about 11.2 cm. A cutting pad is an inescapable item for GSM cutter. It is also known as GSM PAD. GSM pad is mainly used to avoid crinkles and crease from the fabric during cutting. It helps to get the actual value of GSM. How to Measure Fabric GSM by a GSM Cutter Machine Step 1: Condition the Fabric Firstly, take a sample from the main fabric and reserve it for conditioning. The conditioning time may vary from fabric to fabric because it depends on the nature of the fabric.Step 2: Placing It over the GSM Pad When the conditioning time is over, then the fabric is placed on the GSM pad to avoid crinkle and crease. Then the GSM cutter is placed on the fabric.Step 3: Cut the Fabric Now, with the hand-driven metal knob, we have to cut the fabric, maintaining a steady pressure.And thus, the fabric is finally cut into 11.2 cm in diameter.Step 4: Weigh the Fabric Then we have to move the machine and take the fabric for weighting on the electronic balance to have an accurate measurement.Step 5: Calculate the GSM The formula for measuring GSM by GSM cutter machine:GSM=Specimen Weight(gram)x100After weighing the value of the cut specimen, we have to multiply the value with 100 and then calculate it.The calculated result is the GSM value for the fabric.For more accuracy, we should cut the fabric sample from five different places of the main fabric and measure the weight. After calculating the mean value, we have to multiply it by 100 just like before. What is GSM Tester? GSM tester is a type of machine through which the GSM value is obtained by cutting a sample from the main fabric directly. How is GSM Calculated? GSM could be calculated in different ways. But the most commonly used calculation system is “GSM Cutter Machine.” Through this machine, five different samples of the same fabric are examined, and the mean value is multiplied with 100, and the result is the GSM, which is in oz/yard². We have described the process in detail above. What does 300GSM mean? It simply means one square meter of that fabric weighs 300 gm. We know that higher GSM fabric is substantial, and lower GSM fabric is lightweight. According to the GSM value, the fabrics are generally categorized in the following ways – 30 to 150 GSM is lightweight; 150 to 350 GSM is the medium or standard value; More than 350+ GSM  is known as heavyweight or more substantial fabric. Why GSM is a crucial term when looking for a specific fabric?It’s vital because the weight of the fabric depends on this value. The higher the GSM of a fabric is the higher the weight. Thus, if two fabrics are composed of the same material, than the one that has a higher GSM value will cost you more. It’ll be thicker also.

What are the Common UV Testing Standards?

UV Testing Standards Why UV Tested is need? There are many international, national and industry specific test standards that are applicable to UV weathering of materials. A small selection of these are summarised in the table below along with a brief description of their relevance.In general all of the test methods call up one or both of the main UV testing methods i.e. fluorescent bulb or Xenon arc type testing. The standards generally lay down the equipment type and the various control parameters. They also give either definitive or suggested test cycles or options of various cycles to be used. These will typically vary on the following parameters: UV intensity, profile of UV spectrum, duration of UV or total energy, moisture cycle and type of application, temperature or temperature of black panel or reference panels, angle of sample relative to source and distance from source.Often the standards do not specify the duration of the exposure or the assessment criteria for pass or fail. These are often indicated in the specific product standard or relevant industry standard. If your product or industry does not have a relevant standard then we can assist you identifying a relevant test regime.Most European clients find ISO 4892 a suitable standard and most American clients will test in accordance with ASTM G153. Applicable UV Testing Standards Standard Description ISO 4892-3 Test for duplicating Weathering Effects SAE J2020  UV testing assesses the resistance of automotive exterior materials after an accelerated weathering ISO 4892-2 Weathering Effects on Plastic Materials SAE J1960 Accelerated Exposure of Automotive ASTM G23 Standard Practice for Operating Light-Exposure Apparatus (Carbon-Arc Type) with and without Water for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials ISO 4582 Determination of changes in colour and variations in properties after exposure to daylight under glass, natural weathering or laboratory light sources ASTM G154 cycles 1-6 Standard Practice for Operating Fluorescent Ultraviolet (UV) Lamp Apparatus for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials Ford DVM0067MA Test methods for determining lightfastness at high temperature and their influence on dye and chemical recommendations LUL E4156 clause 11.10 Testing methods and associated performance requirements relating to cables SAE J2527 UV testing and Automotive testing. ASTM D570 Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics ISO 4892-1 Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 1: General guidance JIS B7754 Light-Exposure and Light-and-Water-Exposure Apparatus (Xenon-Arc Lamp Type) Further Study Ultra violet (UV) light accounts for around 5% of the sunlight received on the earth's surface (see solar irradiance spectrum below) and falls in the waveband 100-400µm. There are three UV bands (A, B and C) with wavelengths 400-320µm, 320-280µm and 100-280µm respectively. UV radiation interacts with bonds in polymers (plastics & rubbers) which can lead to degradation of the polymer chains and most damage occurs in the 290-400µm range. This degradation can lead to cracking, chalking, colour changes and loss of mechanical properties, all of which must be monitored if the polymeric material is destined for an application outside.

What are those Tarpaulin and Shade Fabrics Testing Standards and What Equipment will be used?

What is Fabric Test? Fabric is the main element of garments. There are many quality parameters of fabrics that must be tested to ensure fabrics quality meet the customer requirement. Fabrics become a cloth when we cut and sew it as per human body shape. Fabric's quality affects directly the human body. Objectives of Fabric Testing: 1. To check that the fabric conforms to the fabric specification.2. To check the effect of physical and chemical treatment.3. To improve the quality of the products.4. To meet customers’ needs.5. research and developed purpose Fabrics Testing Instruments No Test name Instrument 1 Yarn Count Electric balance, Counter pin, magnifying glass. 2 Fabric GSM testing GSM cutter, specimen fabric. 3 Fabric fire testing Gaslighter and fabric. 4 Distortion or Skew Movement Washing machine, Measurement scale. 5 Dimensional stability to washing Measurement Scale, Washing machine, Tumble dryer. 6 Fabric Allergy Testing PH  meter 7 Colorfastness to Crocking Crock meter. 8 Color Fastness to Washing Detergent, Water, Jar, and test specimen 9 Fabric Damage testing Tear strength tester. 10 Colorfastness to light Xenon Arc light machine 11 Seam Slippage test Strength tester machine, Sewing thread, and needle. 12 Fabric Abrasion Testing Abrasion tester, Scissor, Electric Balance. 13 Crease recovery  Test Crease recovery tester 14 Snapping & Unsnapping Test Button snap pull tester machine 15 Fabric Absorbency Test Fabric, Water. 16 Width of the Fabric – Cut table Cutter machine, Table. 17 Shrinkage Test Washing machine, Shrinkage test Scale. Difference types of Fabric Quality Testing, Testing Method and Pass tolerance Yarn Count:Fabric is produced by yarn, so first of all yarn is tested. Yarn Count is a numerical expression of coarseness or fineness of the yarn. This test is done by following the ASTM D1059/1907 method. Its acceptance limit is ±3%.Standard Method: ASTM D1059/1907Pass tolerance: Its acceptance limit is ±3%.Construction Per Inch ( Thread / Unit Length ):PPI & EPI is the most common term in fabric. PPI means pick per inch and EPI means Ends per inch. The pass tolerance is + 5% to -3 %*. The test is followed ASTM D3775 method.Standard Method: ASTM D3775Pass tolerance: The pass tolerance is + 5% to -3 %*Fabric GSM testing:GSM means grams per square meter. It is an important property of the fabric. The more gsm the garments more weight, The less gsm the garments lighter weight.Standard Method: ASTM D3776Fabric fire testingFabric is manufactured by various types of yarn. A fabric contains cotton, nylon, polyester, wool, etc. After manufacturing fabric, it needs to be dyed. Some are appropriate for that dye or not due to the thermal resistance. For that reason, this test is done to identify the yarn and as well as to select the temperature. This test follows the ISO-14116 method.Standard Method: ISO-14116Distortion or Skew Movement:This test method is used as an indication of the propensity of yarns to shift or distort in a fabric. Such distortions are objectionable due to the resulting changes in appearance. This test follows AATCC 179 method. Pass tolerance for left Max ±3 % and for right Max ±3 %.Standard Method: AATCC 179Pass tolerance: Pass tolerance for left Max ±3 % and for right Max ±3 %.Dimensional stability to washing after 3 Home laundry dimensions stability is the main function to test. After making garments if the dimension does not remain the same as before wash, all works will go in vain. To keep an accurate dimension, the test is used. The dimension stability test follows the AATCC 135 method. Pass tolerance along lengthwise max 0 to -3% and width wise max 0 to -5% .Standard Method: AATCC 135Pass Tolerance: length wise max 0 to -3% and width wise max 0 to -5% .Fabric Allergy TestingDuring Dyeing, many chemicals are used. So the PH value may differ from the standard. When garments are worn on the body, it also Directly reacts with skin. If the fabric becomes Acidic or Alkali it will be hazardous for human beings. So it needs to check whether the fabric is neutral or not. This test follows AATCC 81 method and passes tolerance for Acid Range is max 5.5 and for Alkali 6.5Standard Method: AATCC 81Pass Tolerance: pass tolerance for Acid Range is max 5.5 and for Alkali 6.5Colorfastness to CrockingColorfastness means the tendency to bleed the color from fabric. The crocking machine is used to test colorfastness. By crocking colorfastness can be tested in dry and wet conditions. It follows AATCC 8 method and its pass tolerance for dry minimum 3-4 grade and for wet minimum 1.5-3.5 grade according to scale.Standard Method: AATCC 8Pass Tolerance: For dry minimum 3-4 grade and for wet minimum 1.5-3.5 grade.Color Fastness to WashingColorfastness to washing means how many colors bleed due to washing. For this test multitier stripes are used and the specimen is attached with this stripe. Then evaluate the specimen before and after wash. It follows AATCC 61 method and passes tolerance on wool is max 3.5Standard Method: AATCC 61Pass Tolerance: pass tolerance on wool is max 3.5Fabric Damage Testing:Strengthens is another property of the fabric. So Strength is tested by a tear strength tester machine. This test follows the ASTM D1424 method and its pass tolerance is a maximum of 1.5-2.5lbs both lengthwise and widthwise.Standard Method: ASTM D1424Pass Tolerance: maximum 1.5-2.5lbs both lengthwise and widthwise.Colorfastness to lightColorfastness to light means how much color damage or bleed due to light. For this test, xenon arc lamp is used which produces high heat. It follows AATCC 16 method. Its pass tolerance is 2.5.Standard Method: AATCC 16Pass Tolerance: Its pass tolerance is 2.5Seam Slippage testSeam slippage is the problem of special fabrics that contains slippery yarn. This test method is used to determine the resistance to slippage of filling yarns over warp yarns, or warp yarns over filling yarns, by using a standard seam. The tolerance load resistance to yarn slippage should be 15 lbs-25lbs and it follows ASTM D434-95 method.Standard Method: ASTM D434-95Pass Tolerance: 15 lbs-25lbsFabric Abrasion TestingDue to rubbing with a body the entangled small fibers on the surface of fabric create pilling which makes the outsight of garments very odd. In order to remove such kind of problem pilling resistance test is done. It follows the method of ISO 12945 for which needs 3+1/2 hours and 12000 revolutions. The acceptance pill rate is 2-4.Standard Method: ISO 12945Pass Tolerance: The acceptance pill rate is 2-4.Crease recovery AnglesTo determine the recovery properties of fabrics by creasing in a loading device for a predetermined time using a weight. For this test Crease recovery tester is used. The acceptable Crease recovery angle is 75 Deg and it follows AATCC 66 method.Standard Method: AATCC 66Pass Tolerance: The acceptable Crease recovery angle is 75 DegSnapping & Unsnapping - Holding strength test- ( 4 PARTS BUTTON)The test method helps to determine the force required to disengage the fasteners that are attached to the garments and clothes. It follows ASTM D4846 method and Its acceptance load is min 1.5kg and max 2.5 kg. A Snap button puller tester is used for this test.Standard Method: ASTM D4846Pass Tolerance: Its acceptance load is min 1.5kg and max 2.5 kgAnti-Bacterial Activity & EfficacyTo keep the safe fabric from Bacterial activity & efficacy another test is done. For this kind of test, JISL-1902 method is followed.Standard Method: JISL-1902Pass Tolerance: No allowance for bacterial activity.Fabric Test absorbencyAbsorbency defines as the ability to absorb water in the fabric. This property is a very important factor for making garments according to use. This test follows ASTM D123–01.Standard Method: ASTM D123–01Pass Tolerance: Seconds - Before HL 7 and Seconds - After 10 HL 7.Width of the Fabric – Cuttable:No Tolerance for minus width. No upper limitStandard Method: ASTM D3774-18Pass Tolerance: No Tolerance for minus width.Shrinkage TestShrinkage is a common term in the garments industry. Shrinkage indicates that how much shortage or how much extend after laundry in measurement. It is denoted as shrinkage%. The more shrink the fabric consumption is more. as well as costing is more. Its tolerance is ±3 %. This test is done by the ISO 6330 method.Standard Method: ISO 6330 method.Pass Tolerance: tolerance is ±3% (It varies fabric wise )

Understanding BS5867 Part 2 B and C For Curtains

Understanding BS5867 Part 2 B and C For Curtains Understanding BS5867 Part 2 B and C For CurtainsIn this article, we are going to provide the details of what BS5867 Part 2 B & Part C requires and why as a business owner you should be using flame retardant fabrics that fits this standard. What is the standard BS 5867 Part 2:2008 Fabrics for curtains, drapes and window blinds."Who is affected by BS5867If you own a business and want to reduce the fire risk, then it is important that you are mitigating the risk of fire. So you should be abiding and using products certified by BS5867 Part 2 Type B and C.The standard was republished in 2008. Title: BSI - BS 5867-2Fabrics for curtains, drapes and window blinds - Part 2: Flammability Requirements - SpecificationIt is the responsibility of the business owner to ensure that they are using products that are certified for use in the business environment, they can get this information by speaking to their fire officer.Public Environments Risk - Always Check with your Fire Officer.Low RiskPart 2BMedium Risk Part2C SuggestedHigh riskPart2C SuggestedVery high riskPart2C SuggestedCollegesCasinosOffshore installationsLocked psychiatric accommodationSchoolsHospitalsSleeping accommodationPrison cellsin hospital wards & hostelsUniversitiesHostelsMuseumsHotel bedroomsOfficesPlaces of entertainmentNurseriesPublic buildingsBarsRestaurants  Lower Risk - Usually require BS5867 Part 2bHigh Risk - Require BS5867 Part 2 C.NOTE FROM DIRECT FABRICSAll fabrics supplied by Direct Fabrics which are in the flame retardant section are certified to BS5867 and have certification to show this. Other suppliers might not have the necessary information.If you are looking to purchase flame retardant curtains then the view the range here.Business Owners - How to Comply to BS5867Need to specify the requirements for their projects to ensure that their fabrics are suitable for business use and that the Direct Fabrics team can supply the necessary flame retardant fabrics.It is the business owners responsibility to ensure that they comply with the required standard. The table below gives an indication of risk level of your business and you can check with your fire officer which standard you require.Choosing the Best Fabrics to ComplyWhen looking for fabrics or curtains you have a choice of part 2b certified products or 2c.BS5867 Part2C are usually inherently flame retardant fabrics this means that you can wash them and they will not loose their flame retardancy. These are ideal for Care Homes or for centres that will be laundered regularly.  Remember to line your curtains with a lining that is also certified to this standard.Curtain Linings and BS5867For the item to pass the standard the curtains must have the face fabric and the curtain lining certified to the BS5867 standard. The curtain will only be to the standard of the lowest fabrics.i.e the face fabric is certified to Part2C but the lining to Part2B, then you have to maintain to the lowest standard.Flame Retardant Treatment of Fabrics to BS5867Fabrics are available that are inherently flame retardant, these include polyester fabrics and other man-made material. Things like Cottons and other materials can be treated to meet the requirements.How are Fabrics Tested for BS5867Test methodA sample of the fabric, vertically held, is exposed to a small flame.For type B (Hotels, etc) the ease of ignition is observed. It is also noted if the flame reaches one any edge of the specimen and/or if any burning pieces of fabric fall down.For type C (NHS / Prisons) the fabric is further analysed to see what happens once the flame stops but when the fabric still may be glowing.NB: The fabric is tested before and after launderingtype B (12 wash cycles at 40°c)type C (50 wash cycles at 40°c)Test Performance CriteriaType B Performance Criteria: The edges must remain completely intact and no burning debris should fall.Discussion of Risk.When choosing which type of furnishings to purchase for your commercial premises, you should confirm with your fire officer.If you do not use flame retardant furnishings and you have a fire, you may be at risk of not being insured.Getting Fabrics Tested for BS5867Fabrics are certificated by UKAS approved testing laboratories. You can get any fabric tested to the standard and they test the material to the standard. Here is a list of some approved testing labs.ConclusionSpeak with the Direct Fabrics team to ensure that your fabrics are to the requirements required.If you are looking to purchase flame retardant curtains then the view the range here.*This entry was posted in and tagged BS 5867 Part 2 B C, Flame Retardant Fabrics, Fire Resistant Fabrics, care home curtains, flame retardant curtains, hotel curtains, British Standards, contract curtains on August 15, 2013 by Direct Fabrics.